Empowerment of rural women in the Mediterranean region. Rural women in three Mediterranean Countries.
map of egypt

-       According to the Global Gender Gap 2013 the  “Economic participation and opportunity” and the  “Political empowerment” are the  two sectors lowering the score considerably.

-       With regard to the literacy rate, Egypt is placed number 111 out of 136 countries with an inequality between female (66) and male (82)

-       Women better education in general, is one of the major concerns of civil society organisations and institutions in Egypt.

-       Education is a priority, as education is a prerequisite for women to improve their economic and social conditions. Moreover, while looking at these scores, it is worth considering that there are significant differences across regions in Egypt, as well as a big divide between urban and rural areas. 

-       Especially in rural areas, child labour and harmful social norms are widespread and affect negatively health, education and living conditions of those communities where these practices are in place. According to UNICEF annual report 2011 “Children living in rural Upper Egypt are at higher risk of poverty and mortality compared with the rest of the country.

-       According to UNICEF, 74% of 15-17 year old girls have undergone Female Genital Mutilation- FGM. This means nearly eight women over ten.

-       Some progresses have been made. in 2000, the cases of FMG were affecting 97% of the surveyed married women, dropping to 94% according to the sample surveyed in 2003 by the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population. Noteworthy, FGM causes severe consequences on women’s health, psychosocial trauma and sometimes even death.

-       In rural areas, women work in agriculture, but the land is very small and a woman would move to agricultural factories if she could

-        By law, women can inherit land. Usually, it happens  for cultural concerns- that the brother pays her the land as one day she will marry another man

-       There is no equal wage between men and women for similar work in agriculture, although according to Global gender gap 2013, Egypt ranks number 8 over 136 countries for equality in wages. Indeed, it is the labour workforce participation a discriminatory factor explaining this discrepancy in data, in which Egypt has a ratio of 0,32 (females 25, males 78) and ranking 130

-        Egypt presented the last CEDAW report in 2010. A next report should have been presented in 2014, but it has been delayed and up to now, there are no official dates for its presentation. Egypt has reservations to articles 2 and 16 of the Convention, on pursuing a policy to eliminate discrimination and on marriage and family relations.

-        Main areas of concern expressed in the 2010 CEDAW report are the persistence of unequal and discriminatory laws ; the lack of awareness of women of their rights under the convention the necessity to strengthen the legal complaints system, thus the access of women to justice; the necessity to combat the culture of impunity about violence against women, phenomenon which is unfortunately also increasing; the inequality, especially in the education and employment sectors and the inequalities in the Nationality law.